Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens.
—Excerpt from a statement by Justice John Marshall Harlan, the only Supreme Court justice to dissent from the ruling in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson
In which way did Justice Harlan's opinion differ from that of the other justices? He believed that
Justice Harlan believed that all races and classes are guaranteed the same rights.
In the name of God, Amen. We whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread sovereign lord King James, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, etc. Having undertaken, for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honor of our king and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia, do by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, covenant, and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation, and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, offices from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony: unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names; Cape Cod, the 11th of November, in the year of the reign of our sovereign lord King James, of England, France and Ireland eighteenth and of Scotland fifty-fourth, Anno Domini 1620.
—Excerpt from the Mayflower Compact.
Which of the following true statements is the central idea of the Document?
“We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
According to the “Preamble” text, which of the following is a goal of the U.S. Constitution?
Review the following timeline:
1932 – FDR is elected to his first term as president.
1933 – FDR signs a law repealing Prohibition.
1936 – FDR is elected to a second term in office.
1940 – FDR is elected to a third term in office.
1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor and the US enters WWII.
1944 – FDR is elected to a fourth term in office.
1945 – The US wins WWII.
1947 – The 22nd Amendment is introduced which limits presidents to two four-year terms.
What conclusion is supported by the information in the timeline?
Look at the following excerpt, taken from John O’Sullivan’s treatise “Manifest Destiny” (1839).
The American people having derived their origin from many other nations, and the Declaration of National Independence being entirely based on the great principle of human equality, these facts demonstrate at once our disconnected position as regards any other nation; that we have, in reality, but little connection with the past history of any of them, and still less with all antiquity, its glories, or its crimes. On the contrary, our national birth was the beginning of a new history, the formation, and progress of an untried political system, which separates us from the past and connects us with the future only; and so far as regards the entire development of the natural rights of man, in moral, political, and national life, we may confidently assume that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity...
According to the passage, which of the following describes the destiny of the United States?
Look at the excerpt below, which is taken from the “Emancipation Proclamation” (1863).
That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.
The purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation was to
During World War II, the Nazi government of Germany committed a horrific act: the murder by quasi-industrial processes of some 6 million European
Jews who were deemed inferior. The Jews were stripped of their property, forced into ghettos, and eventually transported to camps, mainly in the occupied countries to the east of Germany, where they were systematically put to death. Huge numbers of other groups, such as prisoners of war and people with mental illnesses, were also murdered, but the murder of the Jews was different in that it was an attempt to exterminate an entire population.
What name is used to describe the murder of 6 million European Jews by the Nazi government of Germany during World War II?
Read the following text, taken from a speech by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
“As Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. But always will our whole nation remember the character of the onslaught against us.
No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.
I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make it very certain that this form of treachery shall never again endanger us.
Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory, and our interests are in grave danger.
With confidence in our armed forces, with the unbounding determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph—so help us God.
I ask that Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7th, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire. “
Based on the excerpt, what event was Roosevelt addressing when he made this speech?
This excerpt is from a speech by President Harry Truman:
Members of the Congress of the United States: The very existence of the Greek state is today threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand armed men, led by Communists, who defy the government’s authority at a number of points, particularly along the northern boundaries... Meanwhile, the Greek Government is unable to cope with the situation. The Greek army is small and poorly equipped. It needs supplies and equipment if it is to restore the authority of the government throughout Greek territory. Greece must have assistance if it is to become a self-supporting and self-respecting democracy...The United States must supply that assistance.
Based on the excerpt, what event was Truman addressing when he made this speech?
Refer to this timeline of the Cold War and answer the question:
What was "the Iron Curtain" that Churchill described in his address to U.S. Congress?
More than half of the population of the United States is female. But women occupy only 2% of the managerial positions. They have not even reached the level of tokenism yet. No women sit on the AFL-CIO council or Supreme Court. There have been only two women who have held Cabinet rank, and at present there are none. Only two women now hold ambassadorial rank in the diplomatic corps.
In Congress, we are down to one Senator and 10 Representatives. Considering that there are about 31⁄2 million more women in the United States than men, this situation is outrageous . . .Existing laws are not adequate to secure equal rights for women. Sufficient proof of this is the concentration of women in lower-paying, menial, unrewarding jobs and their incredible scarcity in the upper-level jobs. If women are already equal, why is it such an event whenever one happens to be elected to Congress?
—Excerpt from a speech by Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm delivered in 1969 on the floor of the House of Representatives as she reintroduced the Equal Rights Amendment for consideration
Based on the excerpt, which statement reflects Congresswoman Chisholm's opinion?